The only exceptions are if all components of the mixture have similar critical pressures or critical volumes. The simplest rule which can give acceptable P cm values for two-parameter or three-parameter CSP is the modified rule of Prausnitz and Gunn 43 11 where all of the mixture pseudocriticals Z cm , T cm , and V cm are given by mole fraction averages and R is the universal gas constant. The mixture pseudo acentric factor is commonly given by a mole fraction average 44 Thus, with knowledge of the critical temperature and critical pressure of each species, the EOS for the mixture is determined.

Ideal gases hold that most of the time, gaseous particles are sufficiently far apart such that no forces are felt except during collision. The situation changes in dense fluids. In real fluids, particles interact with others according to an intermolecular potential which is a superposition of nuclei—electrons attraction and electrons—electrons or nuclei—nuclei repulsion. Various modeling approaches exist for describing the potential in interacting systems, from the simplest model rigid impenetrable spheres to complicated four-parameter Buckingham potential. These parameters are illustrated in Figure In combustion simulations involving chemical kinetic models, Lennard-Jones potential parameters are widely used to determine transport properties, such as the viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient, because these transport processes are grounded in the momentum exchange of particles.

The thermal conductivity can be obtained from 15 where A is a constant and C v , i is the specific heat capacity at constant volume for species i.

The widely used two-term cubic equations of state such as the RK model, SRK and PR require the critical properties of chemical species. The critical and phase change properties of a fluid reflect the nature of intermolecular interactions. A direct theoretical connection or correlation has been sought to link critical state parameters to molecular dynamics. Therefore, real gas properties have been investigated by many groups using molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, starting with Wood and Parker. Subsequently, an accurate EOS database was compiled by Nicolas et al.

Traditionally, the Lennard-Jones potential is used to model hard-core neutral atoms or spherical molecules. With the development of the statistical-associated fluid theory, 55 the Lennard-Jones EOS was analytically studied for hard-core homo-nuclear chain molecules.

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With accurate description of the molecular interactions, it is therefore possible to predict real gas behavior. The connection between Lennard-Jones potentials of spherical molecules and their critical properties can be explored using Monte Carlo simulations. However for more practical applications, semiempirical relations are needed for rapid estimation of state properties from molecular potential parameters. Using an appropriate mixing rule, the EOS parameters for a given combustion gas mixture can then be determined from those of the individual species.

- Key Factors of Combustion From Kinetics to Gas Dynamics -Springer Aerospace Technology.
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- Prescribing Hemodialysis: A Guide to Urea Modeling.

One can therefore reverse-engineer the transport data to obtain the critical state parameters needed for the EOS, as done in Section 2. The authors declare no competing financial interest. Combustion of droplets of liquid fuels: a review. Flame , 21 , 1 — 31 , DOI: A review with refs. Among the areas covered are: combustion of stationary and moving droplets in an oxidizing atm.

The application of droplet theories to the modeling of various combustion systems is also outlined. Development and testing of diesel engine CFD models. Energy Combust. A review, with 52 refs. The complexity of diesel combustion requires simulations with many complex, interacting submodels. The review focuses on the current status of work at the University of Wisconsin Engine Research Center. A review of spray ignition phenomena: present status and future research. Elsevier Science Ltd. Two major topics covered are external-source ignition of liq. Three major topics included here are: i ignition of quiescent and flowing fuel sprays; ii ignition of monodisperse and polydisperse sprays; and iii ignition of single-component and multicomponent fuel sprays.

Then, exptl. These models are also discussed in the review. Finally, some advanced topics which are common to both external-source ignition and spontaneous ignition are identified and discussed. An attempt is made to provide a common link between the three dominant ignition modes in sprays, namely individual droplet ignition, droplet cluster ignition, and spray ignition.

In a similar manner, common features of external-source ignition and spontaneous ignition of sprays are identified. A general spray ignition model along with important numerical and phys. The effect of pressure on spray ignition processes is also discussed. Potential topics for further research are suggested. Direct numerical simulations of supercritical fluid mixing layers applied to heptane—nitrogen. Fluid Mech. Cambridge University Press. Direct numerical simulations were conducted for a model temporally developing hydrocarbon-nitrogen mixing layer under supercrit.

An entirely self-consistent cubic Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to describe all thermodn. The Peng-Robinson formulation is based on pure species ref. Departures from the perfect gas and ideal mixt. The qual. The reason for this difference was identified by examg. Bearman-Kirkwood BK thermal diffusion factor excites fluctuations that the const. Irwing-Kirkwood IK factor does not, thus enhancing overall mixing. Combined with the effect of the mass diffusion factor, const. BK thermal diffusion factors also tend to maintain d. These conclusions about IK and BK thermal diffusion factors are species-pair dependent, and therefore are not necessarily universal.

Increasing the temp. The three-dimensional mixing layer exhibits slow formation of turbulent small scales, and transition to turbulence does not occur even for a relatively long non-dimensional time when compared to a previous, atm.

The primary reason for this delay is the initial d. Large-Eddy Simulation of transcortical flows.

## Some Effects of Hydrogen Self-Ignition and Combustion in Supersonic Flow

Comptes Rendus Mec. Elsevier Masson SAS. Real gas effects are accounted for by the use of a cubic equation of state, in conjunction with appropriate viscosity and thermal cond.

First a single nitrogen round jet at supercrit. Two cases are considered, one demonstrating a transcrit. Comparison with available measurements shows good agreement. Finally, the simulation of a reacting case from the Mascotte bench ONERA is performed, consisting in a single coaxial injector injecting transcrit. Mean flow characteristics are in good agreement with the exptl. Large-eddy simulation of supercritical-pressure round jets.

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## View Key Factors Of Combustion From Kinetics To Gas Dynamics

AIAA J. Large eddy simulation of supercritical nitrogen jets. Google Scholar There is no corresponding record for this reference. Large-eddy simulation of trans-and supercritical injection. Progress in Propulsion Physics , ; Vol.

## Key Factors of Combustion From Kinetics to Gas Dynamics Nikolai M. Rubtsov

Simulation of real gas effects in supersonic methane jets using a tabulated equation of state with a discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. Fluids , , — , DOI: Hempert, F. Elsevier Ltd. Modern direct gas injectors for natural-gas-powered internal combustion engines operate at ever-increasing pressures to maximize efficiency. At the operating point of current devices, real gas effects already become relevant, for example in the detn. These effects have to be considered in the design process of such components.

Motivated by this fact, we investigate the real gas effects of high-pressure supersonic methane jets. A discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method for computational fluid dynamics is used in combination with a tabulated equation of state for methane.